As per a survey by water resource development, the United States stated that more than a billion glasses of water are drinking by Americans per day. Many people are considering water as an odorless or colorless fluid just for granted but it has a remarkable substance. The human body should contain 60 percent of water and this makes the basic detailed molecules for life such as,
- Cell membranes
About more than 700 million people around the globe are facing water deficiency or are suffering from a lack of drinking water access. In North America, one of the relatively luxurious things is drinking water in recent years. If humans drink disinfected water then it leads to waterborne diseases like typhoid, cholera, and other deadly diseases. The first city in the world to disinfect its drinking water is jersey city from New jersey after that waterborne diseases started to get the decrease, following that other countries also started to disinfect their drinking water. This article is going to show from where people getting the drinking water straight to the tap and what are the processes are undergoing in that.
Surface water and groundwater:
Surface water gives us sixty-four percent of the public water system, whereas groundwater provides the remaining percent of 36 to the public water system. Both come through the rain and snow. Surfaced water is usually accumulated in rivers, lakes, and other natural areas. Groundwater seeped into the ground and then it will be stored in the natural aquifers. To the treatment centers, surface water will be piped and pumped. Groundwater also pumped out or used the natural springs to get access. These are the major sources of water that come from.
The majority of the water supplies that come from surface water, come from the source of rain and snow runs into the streams, lakes, etc. These are not always nearby to the treating areas, many countries are having their 90 percent water supplies from extended places, for example, New York cities get water from the Delaware watershed that is about more than miles away from the northern part of the city. We had seen already about groundwater, this was accessed by taking out of the ground by springs and pumping methods, and then it helps people for drinking and irrigation systems.
People can utilize drinking water or other supplies in two ways, either by municipal drinking water or by private groundwater wells. As it relies on the town or the people where they live helps to decide by which water sources they can get into the connection. In most cities, people hire private groundwater wells and in rural areas, people stick with municipal water sources. As per the rules stated by the US government with the help of EPA if the house owners have the private well as the drinking water source then they are responsible and house owners have to do the test with their water for the following things,
- Total dissolved solids
- pH levels
people have to take these tests from the certified laboratories, one can use the free testing from the local health departments often. When the well water sample has contaminants at a high level then owners should reach the public health department to get the instructions for a retest and to get the confirmation for the concentration of contaminants.
Some tests can be taken quickly and for instance, add the new and better filtration system for better results. Some of the commonly used treatment to get better drinking water is,
The catchment of water and screening – When a series of pumps and the pipes are connected with the water sources directly to the treating area. Treatment plants move the water with the use of gravity as possible. The large metal screening traps are there when the water reaches right away to the treating plant.
Coagulation and clarification – After that, coagulants are the chemicals with a positive charge added to the water. Those chemicals are namely,
- aluminum sulfate
- ferrous sulfate
- activated silica
- other chemicals
when all these chemicals are bound with the negative charges such as dirt particles in the water they form the floc which is larger gelatinous particles. Later, these flocs are separated and pumped out from the water to the sedimentation ponds.
Ozonation and filtration – a highly reactivated colorless gas called ozone added to the water for purification. By the application of the electric process, the liquid oxygen comes from the molecules that ozone consists of.
This helps to kill the bacteria and protozoans also this process helps to take out the bad odor and degrade the pesticides. With the help of activated charcoal and other mediums, the filtration process takes place.
Disinfection – This is the last step for clean and fresh water. Here, to kill the microorganism chlorine gas and other liquid bleaches are added to the water. In some treating areas, ammonia is also added for better dental health.
As per the rules and regulations of the respected countries these purified waters will be distributed to the areas or houses. As we see already infected water is the major source of waterborne diseases. Even in many countries, people are in a drought. But at the same time by adding any chemicals to the water during the treatment leads to other kinds of diseases due to the lack of natural substances in water. So by the respected sources of drinking water from the world environmental organizations taking many steps to give the pure water with all related minerals init.
Everyone should know the value of the water they have so that countries will never face a drought. As of the report after a few decades, people have to face water deficiency. Not only this deforestation is also one of the reasons for the deficiency. Environmental organizations are looking up to not cut down the trees in the rural and also the urban areas. Every person should be responsible for these situations to give sufficient water to the generations we have to be more superintend in water resources. These are the sources and major things about drinking water.