Tap water primarily comes from three different natural sources such as lakes, groundwater, and rivers especially if you are an American citizen or living in the united states these are the only sources of water that comes from your faucet. But these sources are extremely depending on the region where you are located. In the united states it is about 100 thousand lakes and 250 thousand of rivers along with these many reservoirs and many variances are there in America for the water sources. If we take the survey about the cities in the united states, then many of the cities get drinking water 100 percent with the help of reservoirs while other states or cities depend on lakes, rivers, etc. Says,
- Boston and San Francisco can able to access the drinking water from reservoirs
- Cities like Washington DC collects water from the river called Potomac
- Chicago and New Orleans depends on the Michigan and Mississipi rivers respectively
- Then, ¾ of the New York city get the water from Catskill
Apart from these many countries are applying new methods for water sources like seawater techniques. Other than this majority of the countries depend on the ocean water for existing. Though very few countries are doing the converting process from seawater to drinking water called desalination. This is one of the cost-prohibitive technologies in some countries with a lack of improvement these become a challenging process.
Water taps get water:
Either the municipality or the certified private water service pumps out water from these resources. This will go directly to the water treatment, in their many processes will undergo after those water will be qualified for drinking water. Now, the actual distribution part takes place. This treated water meets each countries safety water drinking authority standards then it will go straight away to the storage facilities. From this storage, every business and home can access the safest water. Through these processes, people get clean water directly from their taps. In America under the same water distribution method, it is nearly one million miles of water is distributing and by that more than 250 million people are utilizing. The system of distributions undergoes,
- Control valves
- Storage tanks
If water wants to come out from the storage area after the purification then some amount of press should be adequate or the water will stand stagnant. Water pressure takes out process by pumping the water to the tower top where the water is stored in a high location. From there water plunges, this creates tension and in turn, moves water right away to the pipes and mains.
Pipes which are one of the major sources for delivering water they can be of different materials that are listed with capacity, durability, etc.
Steel – the most durable water supply material made of an alloy of iron, steel, or carbon, these are of the strongest form of pipes.
Concrete and asbestos cement – for resisting the erosion concrete pipes are majorly recommended. In the western states during 1900 asbestos cement pipes are used. These helps to make more than 14 percent of the drinking water system cross the country. Asbestos is banned in many of the countries because of the concerns about workers which creates a breathing disorder.
PVC and CPVC – polyvinyl chloride is the rigid plastic which commonly uses for the pipes for the low price. But this cannot hold the heat which can easily break down but best for the usage of cold water. Whereas, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride can withstand temperatures up to degrees of 180 F which can be used for both the hot and cold water supply.
Copper – these are a red to brown colored elemental metal which is of lightweight, natural corrosion resistance, and durable. This is not apt for some kind of medical disorder and some can get allergic to these pipes especially to Wilson’s disease.
Cast iron and Galvanized steel – for more than 10 decades cast iron pipes are used for the water distribution because of its durability. In the galvanized iron pipes there is a protective coating of zinc, once it was the best pipes or usable but after a long time of use, this gives water an unsavory taste and smell.
Other than these Cross-linked polyethylene and lead were utilized by the people but due to the safety reason, these get eroded.
Fluoride added in tap water:
Many of the common people without the proper knowledge complaining that fluoride is one of the harmful chemicals to the body but those are just a myth. As per the recent study in 2019, results that fluoride contains many significant relation to the impairment of
- Skeletal fluorosis
- Electrolyte derangement
- Uterine cancer
In the US public water system has been adding the fluoride into the water which supplies to the houses and businesses since 1960 but all with controversy.
Benefits of tap water:
When you by the bottled mineral water and having the marked minerals and components one can get those from the normal tap water. For the healthy intake, these contain the right amount of magnesium, calcium, and sodium. According to the survey of st. Louis, Washington university these contents may vary from place to place.
Options for tap water:
All we know about the option for tap water is bottled water but still, there are some disadvantages in it. For that one can use the spring water that is considered as a healthy option. These come from the direct from springs these will not undergo any kind of treatment. From the deep underground lakes, they get removal f human waste and other contamination. These do not have the fluoridation and the chlorination and the major good thing about spring water is that it does not run through more miles of old age pipes whereas tap water does to reach the destinations.
Water is one of the important substances that we are using in our daily life so drinking the purified water is much necessary. Due to unpurified water, many of the people across the globe are facing health disorders, environmental departments and major health organizations are taking actions to get recover from this kind of issue from every part of the world. These are the process that every gallon of tap water undergoes.